Kitâb al-aʻlâk an-nafîsa VII auctore Abû Alî Ahmed ibn Omar Ibn Rosteh et Kitâb al-boldân auctore Ahmed ibn abî Jakûb ibn Wâdhih al-Kâtib al-Jakûbî by. Warhammer 40k – Lexicanum β. Search. Edit; Watch this page. Ahmad Ibn Rustah. Redirect page. Redirect to: Kasper Ansbach Hawser. Retrieved from. Please log in to consult the article in its entirety. If you are not a subscriber, please click here to read about membership. Ahmad ibn Rustah 1 Historical.

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Ahmad ibn Rustah Isfahani Persian: The information on his home town of Isfahan is especially extensive and valuable. Ibn Rustah states that, while for other lands he had to depend on second-hand reports, often acquired with great difficulty and with no means of checking their veracity, for Isfahan he could use his own experience and observations or statements from others known to be reliable.

Thus we have a description of the twenty districts rostaqs of Isfahan containing details not found in other geographers’ works. Concerning the town itself, we learn that it was perfectly circular in shape, with a circumference of half a farsangwalls defended by a hundred towers, and four gates. His information on the non-Islamic peoples of Europe and Inner Asia makes him a useful source for these obscure regions he was even aware of the existence of the British Isles and of the Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon England and for the prehistory of the Turks and other steppe fustah.

He travelled to Novgorod with the Rus’ and in books relating his own travels, as well as second-hand knowledge of the KhazarsMagyarsSlavsBulgars and other peoples. Concerning the town itself, we learn that it was perfectly circular in shape, with a circumference of half a farsang, walls defended by a hundred towers, and four gates.

Recorded information His i Manuscript page Ibn Fadlan Arabic: Frye add that nothing can be said with certainty about his origin, his ethnicity, his education, or even the dates of his birth and death.

The following is a non-exhaustive list of Muslim geographers. Tumen is an army unit of 10, soldiers. Magyar military organization of the Conquest Era This same kind of military organization was used by the Magyars during the conquest of Hungary.

According to Ahmad ibn Rustah c. Tumens were considered a practical size, neither too small for an effective campaign nor too big for efficient transport and supply. The military strategy was based on the use of tumens The Rus’ Khaganate is the name applied by some modern historians to a hypothetical polity postulated to exist during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe, roughly the late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD.

The region was also a place of operations for Varangians, eastern Scandinavian adventurers, merchants, and pirates.

Kha Khan Old Turkic Latin alphabet: It may also be translated as Khan of Khans, equivalent to King of Kings. In modern Turkic, the title became Khaan with the ‘g’ sound becoming almost Numerous records about Esegels in the sources in many languages, in connection with many historical subjects, and across the span of the Eurasian steppes left numerous variations of their name.

Es-kil, Es-gil “Old city”,[2] which may conflict with the dustah Chinese phonetization pinyin: Ermechionoruma tribe living among barbarians near the ocean, came to Constantinople”. Al-Athir lived a scholarly life in Mosul, often visited Baghdad and for a time traveled with Saladin’s army in Syria. He later lived in Aleppo and Damascus. He ahnad in the city of Mosul. Modern age According to Reuters, his tomb was desecrated in Mosul ahmda members of the al-Qaeda offshoot the Islamic State of Ahmad is a given name.

People with the name and its variants of Ahmad, Ahmed or Ahmet include: In Western culture, it was better known as Ruthenia from the 11th century onwards, [2] Its territories are today distributed among Belarus, Northern Rustan, and the European section of Russia. One of the earliest written sources mentioning the people called Rus’ as Rhos dates to in the Annales Bertiniani. This chronicle identifies them as a Germanic tribe called the Swedes. According rustha the Kievan Rus’ Primary Chronicle, compiled in aboutthe Rus’ were a group of Varangians, Norsemen who had relocated whmad from the Baltic region literally “from beyond the sea”first to Northeastern Europe, then to the south where they created the medieval Kievan state.


The Hungarian invasions of Europe Hungarian: The westward raids were stopped only with the Magyar defeat of the Battle of Lechfeld ofwhich led to a new political order in Western Europe centered on the Holy Roman Empire.

The raids in to Byzantine territories continued throughout the 10th century, until the rustau Christianisation of the Magyars and the establishment of the Christian Kingdom rudtah Hunga This is an alphabetic list of notable people from Iran or its historical predecessors. Majmal al-tawarikh also mentions the library.

Abbas Milani describes the fortified collection of writings and documents as such: Hungary, the name in English for the country of the same name, is an exonym derived from the Medieval Latin Hungaria. In sources written in Arabic, the Magyars are denominated Madjf The following is a list of explorers.

Encyclopædia Iranica

Their common names, countries of origin modern and formercenturies when they were active and main areas of exploration are listed below. Leif Erikson was a famous Norse explorer who is credited for being the first European to set foot on American soil c. Marco Polo was an Italian explorer who traveled to the far east and back to his hometown Venice in the matter of 24 years.

Aumad is noted for making detailed chronicles of his travels Zheng He was a Chinese explorer who sailed along the Southeast Asian, South Asian, Western Asian, and East African coasts along with his fleet of incredibly large ships and ahmav hundred men Bartolomeu Dias is known as the first European to sail around the southernmost tip of Africa, finding the eastern sea route to the Indian Ocean Migration of Hungarians Turkic Tamgas on some of the bricks from Sarkel Sarkel or Sharkil, literally white house in Khazar language [1] was a large limestone-and-brick fortress in the present-day Rostov Oblast of Russia, on the left bank of the lower Don River.

It was built by the Khazars with Byzantine assistance in the s or s. Location Sarkel was located on a hill, on the left bank of the Don River.

It is currently under water, after the construction of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. The left bank of the river was much lower, compared to the right, so a lot of it was flooded. Across the Don River from Sarkel, on the right bank, there was located another large Khazar fortress roughly contemporary with Sarkel. This site is known as Pravoberezhnoye Tsimlyanskoye site, although its ancient name is unknown. D to A. D and ruled until A. D after the premature death of her ruling son Subhakara III.

Some historians believe that she might have ruled as long as A. D abdicating the throne for her grandson Santikara II after he turned older and eligible to run the administration. She was a very powerful female ruler and found appreciating mentions as a beholder of lavish power and prestige by the Arab and Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh and explorer Ahmad Ibn Rustah.

She compared herself with the Goddess Katyayani a form of Goddess Shakti when she ascended the throne at Guheswarapataka mentioned in her Dh It is considered that they got assimilated into Czech, Polish and Ukrainian ethnos,[4] and are one of the predecessors of the Rusyn people. Emerging as nomadic equestrians in the Volga-Ural region, according to some researchers their roots can be traced to Central Asia.


Bulgar language of Oghuric branch. This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 10th century. Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi.

The image depicts an epicyclic planetary model. The following is a non-comprehensive list of Iranian scientists and engineers who lived from antiquity up until the beginning of the modern age.

For the modern era, see List of contemporary Iranian scientists, scholars, and engineers.

Ahmad ibn Rustah

For mathematicians rusah any era, see List of Iranian mathematicians. A person may appear on two lists, e. A Abd al-Hamid al-Katib? Islam in England ubn the largest non-Christian religion, with most Muslims being immigrants from South Asia in particular Bangladesh, Pakistan and North India or descendants of immigrants from that region.

Although Islam is generally thought of as a recent arrival in England, there was minor contact between the English and Muslims for many centuries. An early example is the decision of Offa, the 8th-cen The sacrifice of Polyxena by the triumphant Greeks, Trojan War, c.

Human xhmad has been practiced in various cultures throughout history. Victims were typically ritually killed in a manner that was supposed to please or appease gods, spirits or the deceased. For example, as a propitiatory offering or as a retainer sacrifice when a king’s servants are killed in order for them to continue to serve their master in the next life.

Closely related practices found in some tribal societies are cannibalism and headhunting. In the New World, however, human sacrifice continued to be widespread to varying degrees until the European colonization of the Americas.

Historically, Barus was well known as a port town on the western coast of Sumatra where it was a regional trade center from around the 7th or earlier until the 17th century. It is also known by other names, namely Fansur and Barusai.

In the 16th century, Barus came under attack from the rising power of Aceh, and became absorbed into the Aceh Sultanate.

Ahmad ibn Rustah – Wikidata

The earliest known Malay poet Hamzah Fansuri may be from Barus as indicated by his name. Historical records The beach at Barus Rustan was a significant settlement on the west coast of Sumatra widely recorded in many historical documents. History Origin and creation of the state Information from first-hand sources on Volga Bulgaria is rather sparse.

As no authentic Bulgar records have survived, most of our information comes from contemporary Arabic, Persian, Indian or Russian sources. Some information is provided by excavations. It is believed the territory of Volga Bulgaria was originally settled by Finno-Ugric peoples, including Mari people.

Ibn al-Athīr’s Accounts of the Rūs: A Commentary and Translation » De Re Militari

The original Bulgars were Turkic tribes, who settled north of the Black Sea. About they founded Old Great Bulgaria which was destroyed by the Khazars in Kubrat’s son and appointed heir Rustaah Bezmer moved from the Azov region in about ADcommanded by the Kazarig Khagan Kotrag to whom he had surrendered. He is sometimes referred to as the “Herodotus of the Arabs”. More generally, described as prolific and as a polymath, he was the author of “over twenty” works, in dealt with “a wide variety of religious and secular subjects, including history both Islamic and universalgeography, the natural sciences, philosophy, and theology.

He mentions the names of many scholar associates he met along his