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Since the flip-flop is docked by the 1, Hz signal, the FSK signal will always circukts of ‘complete’ cycles of both 1, and 2, Hz.

Circuits ( Series) by Elektor Electronics Paperback Book The Fast | eBay

Resistors already provided with taps, such as television H. Also, short single pulses will be missed comple- tely. Braun Automatic mono stereo switch For some time now owners of stereo FM re- ceivers will have noticed that the stereo indicator lamp stays on continuously.

The use of short pulses ensures a high peak audio output while keeping the average current xircuits low.

An expanded view of a portion of the waveform as seen on a wlektor cali- brated oscilloscope. Once Cl has again reached the trigger voltage of the diac, the entire cycle repeats itself.

The output from the tempera- ture sensor can be monitored with a mV-meter, and P2 is then set so that the relay drops out when this voltage reaches 20 mV, corresponding circuiits 4Q0 D C. This is done by decreasing the value of R7.

Setting a number n on switches SI to S3 therefore gives an output frequency of n kHz. The current consumption of the preamp is extremely low, typically 1.

301 Circuits (300 Series) by Elektor Electronics Paperback Book The Fast

However, instruments, and particu- larly complex ones such as oscilloscopes, tend to drift with age, and if more than a year or so old can be highly inaccurate. Sine purity is adjusted by P4, which varies the gain of N4 and thus the amplitude of the triangle signal fed to the sine shaper.

To complete the unit, a clock generator is inclu- ded NI This should be adjusted so that the circuit operates on any stereo signal which is sufficiently strong for noise-free stereo listening. For correct offset-compensation Ri and R 2 should have the same value.


The linear- ity of the converter IC is about 1 so that a reasonably good multimeter will enable quite ac- curate frequency measurements to be made. The power supply does not need to be regulated, so it can be kept very simple. The circuit pre- sented here can measure both voltages and cur- rents. The negative -going edge of the waveform is independent of the amplitude of the input signal and occurs always at the zero- crossing point.

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This could be due to the test probe leektor making good contact; or due to a circuit Fault. In circuts of the dramatic drop in the price of crys- 2 tals used in colour TV sets, they now represent an economical way of building an SSB-filter. The IC can be a general purpose op-amp such as a3 orThe compensation capacitor C2 is not required if a is used since this IC is internally compensated. If this output is high the clock fre- quency is low and vice versa.

That completes the calibration – although it is wise to check that the circuit is operating correctly by using lower input fre- quencies and observing whether the meter read- ing is also proportionately lower. Cl holds the second input of N1 below its positive-going threshold for about 15 ms, during 3301 time the output of the circuit will remain low, even if noise pulses on the input waveform should take the first input of N1 high.

It goes without saying that such an arrangement involves a complete loss of realism. Patent protection may exist with respect to circuits, devices, components, etc, described in this book, The publishers do not accept responsi- bility for falling to identify such patent or other protection. To ensure symmetry of the triangle waveform he. Voltage versus current character- istic of a zener diode. The pulse stretcher is a one-shot multivibrator with an output pulse period of approximately ms.

A typical circuit for such a filter is given in figure 1. Flasher bleeper Although extremely useful, the self cancelling devices fitted to car direction indicators are not infallible. The top channel shows the Input signal of the circuit, whilst the bottom channel shows the output pulse.



When current is drawn from the battery, the right-hand end of the shunt will be elejtor a lower potential than the left-hand end, so the output of Al will rise, and the discharge indicating LEDs D5 to D8 will light successively as the current increases.

PI adjusts the trigger point of the Schmitt trigger, which varies the duty-cycle of the squarewave and hence the sinewave purity.

Elektor – 301 Circuits

In a nutshell something to please everybody. The eektor power of watts may appear a little modest, however the resulting sound will bear full comparison with anything even the elemtor troublesome of polter- geists can muster. A portion of the signal is fed to an envelope follower, which rectifies and filters It to produce a positive voltage that follows the amplitude en- velope of the input signal.

The signal is also fed to two limiting amplifiers, which convert the va- riable amplitude sinewave of the input signal in- to a constant amplitude square wave having the same frequency as the input signal – This square- wave is used to clock a binary counter whose div- ision ratio can be set to 2, 4, S etc, so that the output is circjits, two, three etc.

This can be used to calibrate the oscilloscope time- base.

Full text of “Elektor – Circuits”

The linearity of the prototype circuit was l Wo, but this could probably be improved by using an LF for IC1although a symmetrical supply will then be required. The voltage drop across D2 reverse-biases the base-emitter junction of Tl, so that this transis- tor is turned off and the lamps are not lit. Via D6 the input of N4 goes high. Cigcuits and D2 are included to stabilise the reference voltage.

Using the in a low-voltage high-current supply, with an external series transistor oper- ating from the same supply rail as thein- variably results in excessive elekktor in the series transistor.